Top 30 Ethical Hacking Interview Questions and AnswersJanuary 27, 2023 2023-03-10 12:11
Top 30 Ethical Hacking Interview Questions and Answers
Top 30 Ethical Hacking Interview Questions and Answers
Know the Top 30 Ethical Hacking Interview Questions and Answers that would certainly help you in getting an idea of the extent and quality of questions and answer do come across while a job-aspirant faces the interviewers on a face-to-face interaction panel. In addition, this is facilitated by Craw Security, a pretty famous cybersecurity training institute in India, which offers world-class cyber security courses under the guidance of superly trained, skilled, motivated, and dedicated professionals as trainers with 10+ years of quality experience in their respective domains of cyber security.
In this blog post, you may see how you can answer an interviewer asking you some general questions related to ethical hacking and related stuff.
Top 30 Ethical Hacking Interview Questions and Answers
1: What is ethical hacking?
Ethical hacking is the practice of testing a computer system, network, or application to identify security vulnerabilities that a malicious hacker may exploit and then making the necessary changes to protect the system. It is a form of penetration testing that involves the use of the same tools and techniques used by malicious hackers, but with the authorization of the system owner or authorized representative.
Moreover, ethical hackers strive to assess the security posture of a system or application with the goal of improving the security of the system.
2: What is the difference between white hat and black hat hacking?
White hat hacking is a term for ethical hacking, which is the practice of using computer systems to identify and resolve security vulnerabilities. White hat hackers use their skills to find and fix security flaws in computer systems, networks, and applications.
Black hat hacking is a term for malicious hacking, which is the practice of using computer systems to gain unauthorized access to data or systems. Black hat hackers use their skills to exploit security vulnerabilities in order to gain access to data or systems for malicious purposes.
3: What is the difference between a penetration tester and a hacker?
A penetration tester is an ethical hacker who is hired to identify and exploit vulnerabilities in computer systems to help improve security. A hacker, on the other hand, is a malicious individual who attempts to gain unauthorized access to computer systems to obtain confidential information or disrupt operations.
The main difference is that penetration testers are hired to find and fix vulnerabilities to make systems more secure, while hackers use their knowledge to exploit those same vulnerabilities to gain access to sensitive information or disrupt operations.
4: What are the different types of penetration testing?
The different types of penetration testing techniques are as follows:
- External Penetration Testing
- Internal Penetration Testing
- Web Application Penetration Testing
- Wireless Network Penetration Testing
- Mobile Application Penetration Testing
- Social Engineering Penetration Testing
- Network Penetration Testing
- Database Penetration Testing, etc.
5: What is a vulnerability assessment?
A vulnerability assessment is a process of identifying, analyzing, and prioritizing security vulnerabilities in a computer system, network, or application. It is a crucial part of any security plan and helps organizations understand their security risks and develop appropriate mitigation strategies. Vulnerability assessments can be performed manually or using automated tools and can be done internally or by a third party.
6: What is a risk assessment?
A risk assessment is a process that identifies potential hazards and evaluates the associated risks to people, property, or the environment. The purpose of a risk assessment is to determine the appropriate steps needed to eliminate or reduce the risk to an acceptable level. Risk assessments typically involve understanding the organization’s activities, identifying potential hazards, and assessing the likelihood and severity of risks associated with those hazards. The risk assessment also determines the appropriate actions needed to reduce or eliminate the risks.
7: What is the OSI model?
The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model is a seven-layer reference model for how applications can communicate over a network. It is a conceptual model that describes how data is transmitted between two devices over a network. The layers in the OSI model include the physical layer, data link layer, network layer, transport layer, session layer, presentation layer, and application layer. Each layer has a specific purpose and protocol, and the layers work together to facilitate the transfer of data between the two devices.
8: What is a firewall and how does it work?
A firewall is a network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules. Firewalls are typically configured to reject access requests from unrecognized sources while allowing requests from known and trusted sources. Firewalls can be hardware- or software-based and are used to protect private networks from unauthorized access, monitor traffic for malicious activity, and prevent malware from spreading.
9: What is a DMZ?
A DMZ (demilitarized zone) is a physical or logical sub-network that contains and exposes an organization’s external-facing services to an untrusted, usually public, network. It is typically used to improve the security of an organization’s internal network by segregating its public services from its internal network. The DMZ serves as a buffer zone between the public network and the private network, allowing only certain traffic to pass through it.
10: What is a honeypot?
A honeypot is a computer security mechanism designed to detect, deflect, or, in some circumstances, counteract attempts at unauthorized use of information systems. It consists of a computer, data, or a network site that appears to be part of a network, but is actually isolated and monitored, and which seems to contain information or a resource of value to attackers. Honeypots are used to detect, deflect, or counter-attacks, and in some cases, to lure attackers into a false sense of security.
11: What is a vulnerability scanner?
A vulnerability scanner is a type of security software used to identify, detect, and report any security vulnerabilities on a computer system, network, or web application. Vulnerability scanners can also be used to detect misconfigurations and security policy violations.
12: What is a penetration testing methodology?
A penetration testing methodology is a set of processes and procedures used to identify, analyze and report on potential security vulnerabilities in a system or network. This type of security testing is often used to identify weaknesses that could be exploited by malicious actors. It involves a combination of automated and manual testing techniques to check for weaknesses in the system, such as open ports, weak passwords, unpatched software, and misconfigured firewalls. The goal is to determine how an attacker might gain access to the system and what damage they could do once inside.
13: What is footprinting?
Footprinting is a process of gathering information about an organization’s digital assets, including its computers, networks, and systems. It involves identifying the organization’s external and internal presence, such as its IP addresses, domain names, and email addresses, as well as any other information that can be used to gain access to the organization’s systems. Footprinting can be used to identify potential areas of vulnerability and weaknesses in an organization’s security posture, which can be exploited by malicious actors.
14: What is a reconnaissance?
Reconnaissance is the process of gathering information or intelligence about a person, place, or thing prior to engaging with it. It is typically done by military forces prior to engaging in battle or by intelligence agencies prior to making an arrest. It can also refer to the act of gathering information about an enemy’s forces, such as their location, strength, and movements.
15: What is social engineering?
Social engineering is a type of attack that relies on human interaction to gain access to confidential data, systems, or networks. It typically involves an attacker using psychological manipulation to trick people into revealing confidential information, such as passwords, credit card numbers, and other sensitive information.
16: What is phishing?
Phishing is a type of online scam in which cybercriminals attempt to trick victims into providing personal information, such as passwords and credit card numbers, by posing as a legitimate company or organization. It is often done via email, with the criminal sending out messages that appear to come from a legitimate source. The goal is usually to gain access to sensitive information or to install malware on the victim’s computer.
17: What is a privilege escalation?
Privilege escalation is a type of attack that seeks to gain access to the system or network with higher privileges than those provided to the user. This can be done by exploiting weaknesses in the system or network, or by exploiting a user’s access privileges. The goal of privilege escalation is to gain complete control of the system or network.
18: What is SQL injection?
SQL injection is a type of attack that attempts to inject malicious code into an application to gain access to the backend database. It is an attack on the application layer of a system, not the database itself, and exploits the trust an application has in the user-supplied data. Attackers use SQL injection to gain access to sensitive information, including passwords, account numbers, and credit card numbers stored in databases.
19: What is a buffer overflow?
Buffer overflow is a type of software vulnerability that is caused when a program attempts to write data beyond the boundaries of a fixed-length block of memory or buffer. This can happen when a program tries to store more data in a buffer than it was originally intended to hold. When this happens, the extra data can overwrite adjacent memory locations and corrupt or disrupt the program’s normal operation.
20: What is cross-site scripting (XSS)?
Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security vulnerability typically found in web applications. XSS enables attackers to inject client-side scripts into web pages viewed by other users. A cross-site scripting vulnerability may be used by attackers to bypass access controls such as the same-origin policy.
In addition, Cross-site scripting carried out on websites accounted for roughly 84% of all security vulnerabilities documented by Symantec as of 2007. Their impact may range from a petty nuisance to a significant security risk, depending on the sensitivity of the data handled by the vulnerable site and the nature of any security mitigation implemented by the site’s owner.
21: What is a man-in-the-middle attack?
A man-in-the-middle attack is a type of cyberattack in which a malicious actor is able to intercept and relay communications between two parties. This allows the attacker to eavesdrop on the communications, as well as manipulate and/or modify the data being exchanged. The attacker can even inject malicious code into the communications, allowing them to gain access to sensitive information.
22: What is a denial of service (DoS) attack?
A denial of service (DoS) attack is a type of cyber-attack that is designed to make a computer or network resource unavailable to its intended users by flooding it with excessive traffic or requests. The goal of a DoS attack is to render a system inoperable and prevent access to its services and resources.
23: What is a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack?
A distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack is a type of cyber attack in which a perpetrator attempts to make a computer or network resource unavailable to its intended users by flooding the target with an overwhelming amount of internet traffic from multiple sources. The goal of a DDoS attack is to exhaust the target’s resources, making it unable to respond to legitimate requests.
24: What is a zero-day exploit?
A zero-day exploit is a type of security vulnerability in computer software or hardware that hackers can use to gain access to a system or cause data loss or corruption. It is called a “zero-day” because the vulnerability is unknown by the vendor and is used on the same day it is discovered.
25: What is a penetration testing report?
A penetration testing report is a document that outlines the results of a penetration testing exercise. It is typically compiled by a penetration tester and provides details of the vulnerabilities that were discovered, the actions taken to exploit those vulnerabilities, the technical and business impacts of those vulnerabilities, and recommendations on how to address the issues. The report can also contain recommendations for further security measures.
26: What is a post-exploitation?
Post-exploitation is the phase of a cyber attack that follows the successful exploitation of a vulnerability in a system or network. During this phase, the attacker can use various techniques to gain access to confidential data, establish persistence, pivot through the network, and even cover their tracks. It is the most damaging and damaging phase of an attack as the attacker can access and manipulate data, install malicious software, and use the compromised system as a foothold for further attacks.
27: What is the importance of regular penetration testing?
Regular penetration testing is important because it helps organizations identify and address security vulnerabilities before they can be exploited by malicious actors. It also helps organizations prioritize investments in security measures, identify areas where additional training or resources may be needed, and ensure that their security policies and procedures are up-to-date and effective.
28: What is the difference between a penetration test and a vulnerability scan?
A penetration test is an in-depth assessment of a system or network to identify security gaps and weaknesses. It is conducted by a security expert with the intention of exploiting those weaknesses to gain access to sensitive information or data. A vulnerability scan is a more automated process that identifies potential vulnerabilities in a system or network. It is generally conducted with the intention of identifying areas that may need to be further investigated or addressed.
29: How do you stay updated on the latest ethical hacking techniques?
By involving in the following latest ethical hacking techniques, one can sincerely stay updated:
- Attend security conferences and seminars
- Follow cybersecurity experts on social media
- Subscribe to newsletters and blogs
- Join online forums and discussion groups
- Take online courses
- Participate in capturing the flag events
- Read books and magazines
- Monitor security forums and mailing lists
- Utilize vulnerability scanning and penetration testing tools
- Get certified in relevant security certifications.
30: Can you describe a real-life scenario in which you have used ethical hacking skills?
I once used ethical hacking skills to help a small business protect its network from an outside attack. In addition, I was able to access the system and perform a vulnerability scan on the network, which identified several security flaws that could have been exploited by a malicious hacker.
Moreover, I then provided the business with a detailed report of the vulnerabilities and offered advice on how to fix them. As a result, the business was able to make the necessary changes to the system and secure its network.